Differences between ESD and F&G Safety Relays

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There are 2 main applications of safety relays in the process industry. Phoenix Contact describes them as the Emergency Shutdown (ESD), and Fire & Gas (F&G) applications. Across the industry, there are many terms used to describe these 2 applications. In this article, we will have a look at the different terms and understand the uniqueness of each application.

Application AApplication B
Emergency Shutdown (ESD)Fire & Gas (F&G)
De-energized To Safe (DTS)Energized To Safe (ETS)
De-energize To Trip (DTT)Energize To Trip (ETT)
Normally Energized (NE)Normally De-energized (ND)
Terms to describe the 2 applications

Emergency Shutdown Application

Under normal operating conditions, a load like an electrical motor, must be continuously powered. The ESD safety relay which is used to power up a load must also be continuously powered and is described as Normally Energized (NE).

During a safety incident (e.g. the electrical motor is overheated), the load needs to be switched off to achieve a safe state. As the power status of the safety relay and load has a direct relationship, switching off (de-energizing) an ESD safety relay, will result in the load being switched off as well. Thus, the terms, De-energized To Safe (DTS) and De-energize To Trip (DTT) are used to describe this phenomenon.

Example of ESD relay application drawing

Fire & Gas Application

Under normal operating conditions, a load like a sounder and a beacon is not powered. The F&G safety relay is only required to be powered up during a safety incident and to allow the sounders and beacons to sound off the alarm and provide light signals. Under normal operating conditions, the F&G safety relay is Normally De-energized (ND).

During a safety incident (e.g. a gas leak or fire incident), the load needs to be switched on to achieve a safe state. As the power status of the safety relay and load has a direct relationship, switching on (Energizing) an F&G safety relay will result in the load being switched on as well. Thus, the terms, Energized To Safe (ETS) and Energize To Trip (ETT) are used to describe this phenomenon.

Some people might be confused by the term, Energize To Trip (ETT). This is because the word “Trip” is commonly used on circuit breakers, where “Trip” here refers to power down. However, the word “Trip” has a deeper meaning and can be used to describe the powering up and down of a load. A similar word for “Trip” is “Trigger”, and you can think of it as “Energize To Trigger”.

Example of F&G relay application drawing

Summary

The key differences between the ESD and F&G safety relays are the type of load they are connected to, the definition of a safe state and the energy state under normal operating conditions. For ESD, the loads are usually machines used in production; the definition of the safe state is to switch off the relay / load and is normally energized under normal operating conditions. For F&G, the load are usually sounders and beacons, the definition of the safe state is to switch on the relay / load and is normally de-energized under normal operating conditions.

In Phoenix Contact, we provide smart solutions for functional safety, from non-contact safety switches to complex controllers. Our applications range from machine building, the automotive industry, and the process industry. Our products are also SIL certified, which allows you to meet your project requirements easily.

Example of PxC Functional Safety Products

Embracing Technology Towards Smart Manufacturing

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The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is predicted to become the fourth-largest economy in the world by 2030, after the United States, China, and the European Union. The regional development is pushed by a growing educated and young workforce, coupled with a jump in manufacturing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) across ASEAN member countries.

Against the backdrop of this shift in production capacity to this region, governments in ASEAN are encouraging the adoption of 4th Industrial Revolution technologies (e.g. industrial robots, artificial intelligence, data analytics) through various initiatives to support producers of relevant technologies.

Our Machine Building Heritage

Since 1968, Phoenix Contact has been operating an in-house machine building department at Blomberg to maintain our independence from service providers. Today, this department of 260 employees provides support for all developmental and manufacturing business units worldwide. The service portfolio has started to shift from creating manually operated equipment to complex production systems. We are, therefore, very familiar with your daily challenges in this transformation process.

Robust solution to avoid costly downtimes

Tapping into the experience gained from the past decades, the following points have been identified when developing machines for our own production facilities:

Machine Safety – Safety technology is paramount in machine building. It prevents operating staff from being put at risk or damage being caused to the machine. Phoenix Contact’s comprehensive portfolio ranges from non-contact safety switches and safety relay modules to network-capable safety solutions. All our products are very easy to install and configure. This allows you to benefit from the fast and cost-effective implementation of safety-related applications.

System Reliability & Availability – There is nothing costlier than having a machine that is down. Downtimes ultimately lead to production losses and incur extremely high costs. This makes machine availability the top priority. Reliable components and high machine availability are crucial in preventing downtimes and production losses.

Ease of Installation & Servicing – Today’s machines must be able to quickly adapt to changes in the market. A modular machine concept guarantees maximum possible flexibility, while optimally coordinated product solutions are the key to keeping machine manufacturing costs as low as possible.

Utilising components with universal accessories allow a significant reduction of parts and lowering of storage costs. Such standardization simplifies start-up and maintenance for your installation engineers and service technicians.

Reliable Data Acquisition through Cloud

To maintain the competitive edge in the market, processes must be as efficient as possible and continuously improved. Decisions regarding the optimization of machines and production processes are made based on machine and system data.

The collection and evaluation of values such as flow rates, currents, or temperatures allows predictive maintenance to be carried out, thereby improving machine performance and reducing machine downtimes.

Your technology partner towards Smart Manufacturing

Making the Global Reach – Enhancing the value proposition further, the data collected can be pre‑evaluated using a PLCnext Control device and easily transferred to the Cloud. This means that you have an overview of your machine data anytime, anywhere, for optimum machine utilization and availability.

A Need for Robust RJ45 in Industrial Application

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It is hard not to notice RJ45 applications in the devices we use daily. It can be found in applications from consumer, automation, network areas & many more. It is one of the most common communication connectors that you can find today. In the industrial Ethernet, HMS commented a steady growth rate of 20% in 2019 which is 59% of the Industrial Network market.

Phoenix Contact provides the right device interface through robust data connectors for the industrial IP20 environment. With a new product range of RJ45 connectors, Phoenix Contact has developed a robust design for cable and device connectors tailored to these application areas. The Industrial series RJ45 design provides a higher level of reliability over previous standard interfaces. This is achievable thanks to the material selection, the closed design and the mechanically stable sleeve housing which goes far beyond the standard RJ45 systems when it comes to reliability, robustness and degree of protection.

Because device interfaces are often face challenges in terms of extreme temperature, vibration and noise. Phoenix Contact fitted the industrial-series jack with shielded contacts to protect the signal pins from electromagnetic influences, so as to ensure continuous data transmission. Along with improved electromechanical properties, the RJ45 Industrial series also offers increased temperature stability compared to standard RJ45 jack. The special fiberglass-reinforced high-temperature plastic is designed for an operating temperature ranging from -40°C to approximately 105°C.

Adding on the LED displays, it enables the users and maintenance personnel out in the field to easily check the status of the data transmission and, with it, the functionality of the device. The combination of two LED pairs, one yellow and one green, enables the flexible visualization of the electrical functions and the active data connection, depending on how the device has been programmed.

RJ45 Industrial

  • Data transmission in accordance with CAT6A make it ideal for demanding Ethernet applications.
  • Optimized performance for Industrial use due to a high degree of vibration resistance.
  • Straight and angled versions with optional housing shielding springs.
  • High resistance to ESD and EMC for reliable transmission
  • Tray packaging for processing in automated reflow processes.
  • Optional LEDs for optical status indication.

Interested to find out more? Leave us an email at marketing@phoenixcontact.com.sg!

Importance of Data Analytics in Management of Business

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In the recent years, with the introduction of Industry 4.0 standards or “4th Industrial Revolution”, corporations in the Manufacturing and Service Sectors are looking at more flexible and efficient ways of running their business. Through intensive studies, they have come to realize the need for a more accurate process to gather information on the way their businesses are run. This is paramount to increasing productivity and future planning for expansion of their businesses.

These are defined as:

  1. Proper management of resources and investment of Equipment & Manpower
  2. The dynamics of technological advances on the use in Internet with Software Applications and pervasive growth of IOT devices with System integration
  3. The way ‘Big Data’ is managed on VPN and Ethernet Servers
  4. Efficient management of their supply chain, support services to their clients and end markets
  5. Cost savings of such management practices to their overall business expenditures and resources

Here I would like to show some of the present growth areas in Data Analytic use in different business sectors

Case Study 1: Marketing and Promotion of new consumer products

In Japan, digital signage with Smart Facial Recognition is used for market surveys & promotion of new products.

A key advertising company engages with a Digital Signage company to place such display consoles at heavy traffic malls and major department stores. Consoles come with key facial recognition software applications.

At certain peak periods, the consoles will play certain advertisements and will record the number of people watching the advert with their age profile. They would also prompt certain promotion vouchers or discount coupons that can be downloaded via Bluetooth or QR Code to the audience for them to buy or try the products advertised.

The number of vouchers or QR code vouchers given out is paired with the facial recognition application to give a profile of the audience dynamics to the advertiser by the Digital Signage content provider. In the course of 3 months, they would be able to compile the success or failure of the promoted products and the popularity of the product to the type of audience that are interested in that product from the advertiser.

Case Study 2: Food and Catering Business

Kitchen Ordering Systems being linked to ERP for the management of the procurement of consumable foodstuff.

Every ordered dish items are tracked and the popular menu items or newly promoted menu items can be tracked to efficiently minimize unnecessary wastage of items that are not popular. Restaurants are increasingly running their businesses based on data provided by such systems to efficiently run their staffing requirements at certain time periods as well as managing their restaurants to be more profitable. Based on such data they can manage their supply chain better on the actual requirements of the foodstuffs and consumables.

Case Study 3: Energy Distribution

Use of smart meters in homes and manufacturing that come with communication modules using RF, Powerline communication modules, Bluetooth mesh networks for meter data.

Smart meters are growing in numbers and are increasingly being deployed. The consumers’ metering data are transmitted to backend Scada systems by Ethernet gateways for billing and compilation of the way energy is used in the power grid of that community or city.

The pervasive use of smart meters in upcoming markets in new economies like China and India is improving the efficiency of the Energy distribution market. These controls prevent pilferage and loss of revenue for the power grid utility companies. Data is also accumulated by utility companies so that the power grid supply can be better managed to meet the demand of the consumer market.

Submetering solutions are now used on automations and manufacturing in factories to better monitor the efficiency of their production equipment on a specific line.

These enhancements improve the servicing and maintenance cycle for efficient deployment of machinery during up and down demand cycles.

With most of their control systems contributing to the accumulation and transfer of these data, businesses have a clearer prediction on how, when and the why oftheir business trend patterns.

The prevalent use of Data Analytic systems are never full proof, as Data Security in the IIOT/M2M spatial arena is still being refined. Protection of such data from hacking and manipulation is still being studied by software companies.

With data constantly being sent back from such remote or open interface architecture which is easily accessible by the public, more robust and intelligent router switches with built in embedded firewalls will be in high demand by these systems integrators.

Phoenix Contacts currently has products with such features in the market, and more implementation of such security features and in its future route map. Contact us at marketing@phoenixcontact.com.sg to find out more!

EMpro – Making Energy Measurement Easy

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Data is extremely important in today’s world and the future.

All stakeholders and industries from machine builders, automotive industry, facility management, steel industry, industrial production, solar industry and datacentres etc. are collecting their energy data and analysing it. This enables them to make important business decisions that optimise their operations, increase productivity and reduce cost.  This should be able to be done locally and remotely.

Why measuring energy is so important?

“If you can’t measure it… you can’t manage it.”

Phoenix Contact’s innovative and coordinated portfolio of sensors and measuring technology can save you a great deal of effort when it comes to energy data acquisition.

Whether complex energy measurements or simple cost center billing: the broad range of multifunctional energy measuring devices and MID-certified energy meters ensures that there is a product for every application. Furthermore, there is a large selection of current transformers available, also for retrofitting.

The fastest way to measure energy

EMpro energy measuring devices acquire your energy data and communicate it to higher-level control and management systems. The user is able to configure and integrate the devices in just a few steps using the web-based, user-guided installation wizard. You can also benefit from the simple, direct connection of conventional Rogowski coils, and from the many practice-oriented web servers and device functions.

The integrated REST interface and direct connection to the cloud pave the way to the digital world in the Internet of Things (IoT). 24 V versions complete the portfolio.

Advantages of using EMpro measuring devices to manage your energy consumption

Set up communication interface, select grid type and configure measuring input: the EMpro energy measuring devices are configured and integrated into the network within minutes. Reduce your wiring and configuration effort, and benefit from smart web server functions.

Directly to the cloud with EMpro – without using a gateway

Access your measured data and component data anywhere in the world, without using an additional IoT gateway. You won’t need an IoT gateway to aggregate data, to convert between local network protocols and IoT protocols, or for encryption. The IoT-capable EMpro device is able to transfer its data directly and securely to the cloud using a router.

Energy data acquisition via Ethernet for Proficloud

Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is an established protocol that is widely used in the context of the Internet of Things (IoT).

It is an open message protocol for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, which enables the transmission of telemetry data between devices in the form of messages – despite long delays or limited networks.

Using Transport Layer Security (TLS), data can be encrypted and transmitted over the Internet or other networks. It is a hybrid encryption protocol (combination of asymmetrical and symmetrical encryption). It enables the secure authentication of communication devices, i.e., it checks the identity of the recipient or sender. In addition, through encryption the transmitted data is protected against unauthorized access by third parties and against tampering or falsification.

Access to data points via REST API in EMpro

Web services are playing a key role in the growth of companies in a digital world. That’s why we tirelessly research web technologies and incorporate well designed solutions into our industrial components.

One of these solutions now enables multifunctional energy measuring devices to communicate via the REST API (Representational State Transfer Application Programming Interface).

This interface allows you to easily integrate measured data and device data into your building management system without any existing knowledge of industrial network communication.

In local networks, the devices can be easily accessed via the integrated REST API. 

REST or “Representational State Transfer” is a widely used architecture in the field of IT, which is also gradually being adopted in industrial applications. The user-friendly interface architecture uses well-known Internet protocols. Using any browser, data can be retrieved with just a few commands via an HTTP GET request. You do not need long register tables or special knowledge of industrial communication protocols.

Energy data acquisition in an Ethernet network via Modbus/TCP or RESTful API

EMpro – your choice for making energy measurement easy.

The Only Constant is Change

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It has been approximately three months since the Covid-19 outbreak affected us globally. The Covid-19 crisis has brought misfortune to some industries. However, some have unexpectedly benefitted from the situation, for example: mask and sanitizer manufacturers.

Have you ever thought that Working from Home (WFH) will be something necessary before the outbreak? This difficult situation of Covid-19 has affected much of the way we work, how we work with our clients, and even how we manage to maintain relationships with our family and friends (including our customers and suppliers). I personally felt overwhelmed when my company first applied the WFH policy. Professionally, I was not sure if I could be productive and work effectively from home. I also had to find practical ways to communicate with my supervisor, in order to ensure that he could always get the latest updates on my work progress. Personally, I am worried about how I can protect my own health and that of my family from this contagious virus.

May is often celebrated as Mental Health Awareness Month. Through this blog, I would like to share 3 points that can hopefully remind us to always be always grateful amidst this difficult Covid-19 pandemic.

1. More Personal Time

Let us be honest. When we’re busy with our travel schedule or appointments, we sometimes forget to plan for our own personal time. With WFH, we actually can have more personal time to ourselves. We may enjoy our own personal time by watching movies or reading those books on the shelves which we have not had the time to complete before.

We can also do some self-reflection and self-development. As we are supposed to stay at home most of the time, we might find ourselves learning to unlock new skills, such as video editing, hosting virtual meetings, or even our cooking/baking skills!

Not to forget, now we also have more time to exercise. We tend to find excuses not to go to the gym after working the whole day. As we do not need to commute to our workplace anymore, we have plenty of time to keep our body fit.

2. Precious Bonding Time

When was the last time you really spent quality time with your family members other than on weekends (if you do not have any appointments with your friends)? For countries with lockdown measures like Singapore, Malaysia, and the Philippines, you are required to stay at home with your family nearly 24/7, with the exception of going out to buy essentials. We can see what our kids/parents/siblings or even pets are doing the whole day! While some of their lifestyle habits may surprise you (E.g. your kids write the letter x in a different way than you do), this might be the perfect time for us to have precious bonding time with our partners at home.

If you miss your friends, you can always just call them instead! Video calling our friends virtually might seem awkward at the beginning, but as time goes by, you will find yourself comfortable with it. Video calling our dear friends might now be the perfect way to catch up with them.

3. The New Normal

For those whose companies are applying the WFH policy, I would like to congratulate you! Many front-line workers do not have the chance to do that, and we should appreciate their honourable act of fighting the pandemic outbreak. For us who are told to stay at home, let us be grateful as the new normal is currently here at your doorstep.

We are officially more flexible now! Although we opt to find new solutions in order to be productive while we are working from home, we can actually adjust our activities according to our own needs. We can work from our own beds wearing pyjamas, also at our own preferred timing. We may also set our own preferred music for the purpose of our own entertainment.

Moreover, by doing frequent virtual discussions or meetings with our teams or managers, we might create an unusual bonding which might not have occurred if we meet face-to-face in the office. This bonding or connection will undoubtedly be beneficial when it is the time for us to be back in the office.

To conclude, we must understand that this crisis is beyond our control and it is important to look at the silver lining. We have to stay positive, and being positive can help maintain our mental health. Although we still cannot predict when this pandemic will be over, it is part of our social responsibility to motivate our friends & family by looking at the current issue in a positive way. Just like the old proverb: “When life gives you lemons, make lemonade”!

Transmission and Distribution Industry – Solutions and Products

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Phoenix Contact Transmission and Distribution industry has lots of products and solutions tailored for different global industries. Customizing the solution to individual customers’ specific requirements, we discover new innovative solutions.

Reliable, intelligent, future-proof

Highly available systems are based on reliable components that interact seamlessly with one another – just like the components from Phoenix Contact. We use innovative products and sophisticated solutions to help our customers operate highly available systems, implement efficient processes and establish a technical infrastructure that is fit for the digital future.

Electrifying since 1923

We brought the first modular terminal block for power plants to the market nearly 100 years ago. Since then, we have successfully installed these terminal blocks in countless energy industry projects. Together with our customers, we have broken new grounds and driven innovative developments forward time and again. Because as a global market leader in electrical engineering, we want to offer our customers tomorrow’s solutions today.

Testing

Regular device and interface testing are crucial to critical infrastructures, such as energy switching devices. Whether meters, measuring devices, or protective relays – with our special terminals or our pluggable FAME system, you can connect, test, and replace all devices quickly and safely.

Power supply and protection

Station control technology is essential in order to guarantee safe and reliable operation of a substation. Supplying these devices with failsafe voltage, while at the same time protecting them, is one of the most important tasks of the power transmission and distribution system. For this purpose, we offer special power supply units for 24 V DC that can be installed redundantly, and compact device circuit breakers that can be used to protect each function separately. With their broad range of protection, control, and measurement functions, our compact protection and control devices are well-suited for a wide variety of applications.

Remote control

Connecting decentralized process and grid stations in different locations to one central control centre requires the use of modular remote control systems that are capable of utilizing a range of communication protocols. However, to ensure that the connection, evaluation, and parameterization of data remains functional, we offer solutions that can be configured, operated, and maintained safely and economically, and require no programming knowledge. Moreover, these solutions guarantee reliable monitoring and access via a wide range of standardized communication protocols.

Signalling

Annunciator relays are used for reliably signalling danger and operating states in control rooms, in mimic diagrams, and on control panels. Our range of alarms notifies users of a variety of system states clearly, and in good time. Malfunctions and faults are quickly and reliably detected, which in turn allows them to be addressed immediately.

Networking

In times of volatile energy generation and new digital trends, providing a stable energy supply can be challenging. We are here to help you master this challenge, with intelligent technologies for processing and transmission of all relevant data while ensuring compliance with IEC 61850.

Measurement, conversion, and coupling

Isolate, convert, and filter signals and monitor and control processes: our MCR components cover all the tasks required for interference-free signal transmission from sensor level to control level. Discover our energy measuring devices, current and voltage transformers, and relays.

Connecting

Whether in a control cabinet or in the field – the energy industry places a large number of demands on connection technology. It must be as safe and secure as it is durable, and it must also be easy to operate. Connection technology from Phoenix Contact meets these demands, from screw connections, to insulation-displacement contacts, right through to Push-in connections.

Marking

A consistent plant marking system forms the basis for efficient maintenance, repairs and troubleshooting in substations. And we offer comprehensive, uniform system solutions for this purpose: from marking materials to labelling systems all the way to software, all from a single source.

Interested to find out more? Leave us an email at marketing@phoenixcontact.com.sg!

TERMITRAB Complete – The Narrowest Surge Protection for MCR Technology

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TERMITRAB Complete is the world’s narrowest surge protection for MCR application. This product range provides you with a complete system kit, featuring an integrated status indicator and an optional remote signalling set. TERMITRAB Complete, the narrowest protective device at only at 3,5mm width.

  • Starting from 3.5 mm widths, TERMITRAB complete is the world’s narrowest surge protection solution for MCR applications
  • Status indication with remote signaling
  • System modules for all MCR applications

From 2019, pluggable protective devices in the TERMITRAB Complete product family will be available for 3-wire measurements.

  • Due to their very low insertion loss, the products are ideally suited for resistance measurements.
  • Thanks to their ATEX and IECEx approvals and UL listing, they can be used in any application.
  • High rated current of 5 A also makes them suitable for use on actuators.
  • The protection of 3-wire cables only requires 6mm width.
  • The status of the protective devices is always visible thanks to the integrated status indicator.
  • The status is transmitted to the controller via optional remote signalling set.

TERMITRAB Complete – your best choice of Surge Protection for all MCR Applications. With a complete portfolio ranging from Single Stage Protection to multistage Surge Protection with integrated status indication and knife disconnect, TERMITRAB Complete SPD will give you the most holistic and comprehensive protection for your cabinet solutions.

Interested to try out all the benefits mentioned above? Feel free to get in touch with us at marketing@phoenixcontact.com.sg!

SmartRTU AXC SG

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The smartRTU AXC SG telecontrol and automation technology system from Phoenix Contact can be used across industries. In addition to the telecontrol technology, it can be used as a simple automation solution. Its use in electrical networks is the primary application field. Additionally, applications in wind and solar power plants, water supply and gas supply can be also realized simply and safely with the smartRTU technology.

With smartRTU technology, many applications can be implemented, from simple to complex telecontrol and automation applications. The simple and secure parameterization of a solution using a web browser also enables trained service technicians without programming knowledge to configure and commission an application.

Thus, the monitoring of operating variables in distribution grids can be parameterized in a very simple, fast and flexible way. The integration of short circuit and ground fault indicators and other devices via relay contacts, Modbus RTU or Modus TCP communication is possible without expert knowledge. The reporting of operating states and measured variables to higher-level telecontrol nodes or control systems has already been implemented in compliance with current information security regulations. The parallel communication via different, standardized communication protocols such as IEC 60870-5-101 / 104 or IEC 61850 (coming soon) is possible. This allows distribution networks to be safely and economically monitored and optimally operated.

In addition to the monitoring of distribution grids, the active control of the grids by means of further smartRTU functionalities is already included in the functional scope. The monitoring of load and circuit breakers as well as their remote control gets implemented by parameterization of the provided smartRTU application. Whether single message or double command, the system is already preconfigured for this. An individual and customer-specific realization is given by the modular and flexible software and hardware construction.

Selected functions and setting parameters allow, among other things, to configure a complete feed-in management solution, with readback of the actual feed, with just a few clicks and inputs. The communication link to the distribution system operator’s control system can just as easily be bidirectional, e.g. via a 104 communication.

Thanks to the simple parameterization, evaluation, logical linking and communication of signals and values, a number of different telecontrol applications and solutions can be implemented quickly, safely and simply across industries using smartRTU technology from Phoenix Contact. If you would like to find out more, feel free to contact us at marketing@phoenixcontact.com.sg!

Safety in Tunnel Applications

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Commuting each morning via the 12km road tunnel during peak hours, it only takes a little more than 15 minutes to reach my destination from home. It is difficult to imagine thousands of cars passing through each day without hearing many accidents being reported on the news. However, when calamity arises, it is then clear that the safety systems have been put in place, ensuring the safety of road users at all times.

Have you ever wondered what is going on behind the scenes?

The road tunnels are designed in accordance with directives which specifying the minimum safety requirements. Aside from the emergency exits and emergency telephones available at regular intervals, it is paramount that the tunnels must always be supplied with power, light, fresh air and water for firefighting.

Take the ventilation system for example. It helps to remove toxic gases when the NOx, CO or CO2 levels are detected to be high during normal operations. In the case of a fire, the operator depends on the same system to purge the smoke and heat from the tunnel, away from motorists evacuating the tunnel or the emergency response team that is tackling the disaster.

To minimise potential casualties, Phoenix Contact has developed the Dynamic Evacuation Guidance (D.E.G). The automated D.E.G comprises of a full redundant configuration, where the guiding handrail is monitored by a pair of redundant PLC to guarantee maximum availability. Together with its 2-hour phosphorescence effect on the guiding handrail, the worst-case scenario during a loss of electrical power is also mitigated.

It is equally important to note that all state-of-the-art safety systems will not be operating at its best without a reliable communication network. The integrated backbone communication network is typically setup in several redundancy levels. At “switching level”, the entire tunnels are segregated into various “zones” covering certain sections of the tunnel. These “zones” are then grouped together through the “routing level”. With this structure, network failure (should it ever occur) can be isolated, without affecting other parts of the communication network.