Category Archives: E-Mobility

Off Grid EV Charging for AC and DC

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Much has been said about “Decarbonization of Transportation” and to greener Electric Vehicles (EV).

But in a small country like Singapore, is it difficult to achieve such goals?

It is almost a monumental task to convert a certain percentage of our present Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) Vehicles to EVs.

Let’s do a comparison with a similarly populated European country that has successfully converted to EVs in the last 5 years.

Norway      Total Population – 5,421,241 as of 2020

Total Vehicle population – 2.8 Million of all types

When was EV Introduced in Norway?

In 2007, Oslo started the conversion to EV by installing 400 charging points from 2008-2011 in the City as a try-out for the switch to de-carbonization from ICE Vehicles. By 2011 it was deemed a success and that started the move away from Fossil Fuel transportation. It took them 13 years for this change to happen.

Singapore     Total Population –  5,690,000 as of 2020

Total Vehicle population of 973,990 of all types

Between the 2 countries the Energy Consumption in terms of Gigawatt/hour per Quarter estimates

Norway –   13.067 GW per Quarter

Singapore – 12.6 GW per Quarter.

Majority of Energy supplied in Norway is from Hydro-electric Plants (65%) Bio Gas (25%) and (10%) Solar, whereas in Singapore, it is mostly from Bio Diesel Generation (75%) and Solar (25%).

With the above statistics in mind, let’s look at the possible solutions for Clean Energy Generation for EV Vehicles.

This time we focus on Off Grid AC and DC Charging for less dependency on Fossil fuel generation and Renewable energy.

The system requirements for OFF Grid Charging

Here you have the basic Solutions block for an Off Grid System:

  1. PV Solutions that is connected to Main Switch board management system
  2. EVC – EV Chargers of AC or DC types
  3. BESS – Battery Energy Storage in DC (Lithium Ion or Vanadium Reflow Battery)
  4. Back End Controller to Gateway or for EV Charging Data
  • Optional connection to Grid as backup to charging the BESS should the PV system have insufficient supply of power to BESS.
  • Other loads to Motor or Pumps for infrastructure if the above is a micro grid system used in remote locations.

The above can be used with AC EV “Slow Chargers”, or if It’s connected to a bigger Solar Farm source that can connect to a 1.0MW -1.5 MW BESS to DC Fast Chargers of 60KW to 150KW.

OFF GRID AC Car Park Chargers Solutions

15/100KWh BESS connected to 2 AC chargers dispensing 7Kwh EV Charging Power

We have components for the following solutions:-

  1. EV charger solutions that can take 220VAC at 32 Amps Single phase to give 7Kwh AC charging. The Parking lot size caters for 2 AC Chargers.
  2. Power conversion rectifiers that can convert DC to AC from the BESS to AC EV Charger.
  3. Solar Combiner boxes from Phoenix Contact to Convert DC direct to BESS.

The solution can be connected to the back-end controller via Modbus and then to our Gateway for communication with backend.

OFF GRID DC Fast Charger Solutions

Solar Farm Generating 0.5mW connected to a BESS of 0.5MW to 1.5MW + 2 DC fast Chargers

Here in this DC Fast Charger solution, we have.

  1. Solar Combiners boxes to connect to BESS.
  2. BESS will have DC to DC rectifier blocks to stabilize the power output to the DC EV Chargers.
  3. Our DC Chargers will have all our “CHARX” products from HMIs to Charge controllers

DC to DC rectifiers to generate output power in DC at 60 -150Kw to EV Cars.

The Future of EV (Electric Vehicles) Implementation in Singapore

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Time of Green Vehicles

It is in interesting times we live in in this year, as COVID-19 safe distancing has changed the way we travel, be it by air or public transport.

The banning of international air travel has caused the skies to be clearer and cleaner, and the limiting of public travel in a lockdown situation has also improved the air quality of those countries experiencing lockdown significantly.

  • So we ask, what does this mean in terms of transportation?
  • What can we do to make this situation a game changer? To improve on our existing infrastructure to prepare for the changing trend towards a cleaner environment and reducing the total carbon footprint transportation?

The answer is Greener Vehicles!

Singapore’s market for Public Transportation

We already have a non-polluting, efficient MRT System in place.

But let’s see the current vehicles registration content in Singapore today

Figure 1: Motor Vehicle Population in Singapore

We have a total vehicle population of 945,487 vehicles as of Sep 2020.

Hybrid Vehicles (Petrol Electric/Diesel Electric) – 48,455 units (0.5% of total)

Fully Electric (Electric Vehicles including Buses) – 1,452 units (less than 0.1% total )

Singapore signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2006 and ratified in the 2016 Agreements to bring down Singapore’s greenhouse gas emission from 0.11% of global carbon emissions.

Our main Electricity supply is from Natural Gas, the cleanest form of Fossil fuel. We are also looking to revamp our dependency on this to move into solar and other forms of energy efficient solutions, such as reducing carbon emissions from power generation and working with private organizations and the community to use energy more efficiently.

The aim being to lower carbon emission levels by 36% from the levels in 2005  by 2030. What it means, is to make Singapore’s carbon emission level to be at 0.07% instead of 0.11% of total global carbon emissions.

The immediate way is to change our vehicle population presently to from fuel-based to clean-energy-based.

The magic number is 2% of the total car population from the present number, to be converted to full Electric Drive Vehicles.

This seems like a tall order when you consider that the current EV population in 2020 is now at o.1%, assuming that our vehicle population is maintained at present levels from now to 2030.

To get to that number, we will need a full EV Population of 19,000 units to 20,000 units by 2030.

What is the single most important factor in running an EV Car?


The Singapore government needs to improve on the EV charging infrastructure if they are going to be able to support 19,000 to 20,000 full EV Cars by 2030.

There must be 1.5 EV charger per vehicle, or 1 full time charger where the owner has at home and 0.5 charger in the public charging infrastructures to be able to keep the vehicle running at all times within Singapore.

So the charging infrastructure needed will be around 28,500 EV chargers or 30,000 chargers or charging points in Singapore by 2030.

An EV car Average range is 200km on a full battery charge and most EV cars from the Sub compact (Hatch back) to saloon class have a battery of 25KW to 40KW power capacity.

To charge up this battery from 0% to 80% to sustain the usability of the battery as well as to sustain the battery life for around 6-7 years, it will take the following charging times if AC charging is required, based on the following table:

DC (Direct Current) high power charging may apply to bigger battery sizes of 50KW power and above.

But the problem with constant DC charging is that it shortens the battery life.

For example:  ZOE (Renault) Battery capacity is 22KW and distance on a full charge in single phase at 16 Amp 3-4Kw takes around 6-9 hours and 3 phase DC at 22kw takes 1 hour for 80% and 43Kw at 63 A DC is around 30 mins for 80%.

The way to go for EV Charging is by AC as that is slow charging, and will be less strenuous on the battery life.

If the EV car owner has a private car park where they have their own AC Chargers at home. And they travel a weekly distance of 200km then they will need to charge once a week (6-9 hours) or every alternate day for (1 hour to 1 hour 30 mins) on the same home charger.

Running Cost Comparison for fuel-driven car vs EV CAR (same Model type)


So with DC charging being invariably higher in terms of cost of implementation and being less practical, what solutions do we have for AC Charging in the current existing market?

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  Note: Green Boxes are where our charging solutions will be applied

Our AC Chargers can be implemented across the spectrum of the infrastructure market.

What are the main advantages of our solutions?

  • Cost of Maintenance is low as components are all easily replaceable.
  • AC Power charging may be slow but we make use of the existing power supplies from the infrastructures on the power grid.
  • Load limiting software available for preventing peak hour overloading of the power grid.
  • Easily upgradeable depending on the increase in the infrastructure set up, as all components are modular.
  • Education on the solutions, training on the serviceability is easily available as any contractor for power distribution cabinets with ITC Certification in Electrical Engineering will be able to manage these solutions.
  • Easily replicated and configured in various buildings and infrastructures.

We at Phoenix Contact SEA are ready to help provide these charging infrastructure solutions in support of the growing EV Market in Singapore.

E- Mobility Education Kits for Learning EV Charging

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Phoenix Contact E- Mobility group has come up with EV-Charging Kits for training E-mobility EV Charging awareness, which will be used by Technical Institutes and Polytechnics as well as Energy Authorities.

These kits contain the basic main components, as well as build plans for the trainee to understand how to construct a basic EV-Charger based on 16 to 20amp current input and charging at 3.7 kW at 230 VAC supply.

These kits can then be configured into different charging applications to provide a better understanding of EV-Charging Technology.

Contact your local Phoenix Contact office to get the Brochures on this product range.

Kit References are Article No. 1628080 (Type 2 Infrastructure Inlet for Mode 3 Case B) and Article No. 1628077 (Tethered cable Type 2, mode 3 case C)

Charging Mode 3 Case B
Charging Mode 3 Case C
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Want to find out more? Feel free to contact us at!


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With the advancement of E-Mobility applications in the various markets in South East Asia, Phoenix Contact is at the forefront to introduce components and solutions that will suit our customers’ need to move into this technology.

We have:

  • Advanced Controllers for EV Charging equipment as well as grid and power demand software such as our E-Mobility Suite that allows EV-Chargers management on the power grid.
  • Backward compatibility for developers of OCPP payment back end.
  • Connectivity products such as HPC connectors that works on DC charging requirements for fast chargers.

Phoenix Contact – the name in E- Mobility. Feel free to contact us at to find out more!

Reliable Charging Systems for E-Mobility

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We develop charging systems and charging controllers for DC and AC charging. Our customers see us as a complete provider of components for devices within the charging infrastructure, for both static and mobile equipment. As an innovator in this field, we set new standards for the further development and standardization of components and solutions worldwide for a modernized charging infrastructure.

Different types of Vehicles. Image from:

Different types of Vehicles. Image from:

Most Relevant Standard for E-Mobility Charging

IEC 61851 Electric vehicle conductive charging system

  • IEC 61851-1 – General requirement
  • IEC 61851-21 – Electric Vehicle Requirement
  • IEC 61851-22 – Charging Station
  • IEC 61851-23 – DC Charging

IEC 62196 Plug, Socket-Outlets and Vehicle Couplers

  • IEC 62196 -1  General requirement
  • IEC 62196 -2  AC Charging Connector
  • IEC 62196 -3  DC Charging Connector

ISO/IEC 15118 Vehicle to grid communication interface

  • ISO/IEC 15118 -1 Use Cases
  • ISO/IEC 15118 -2 Protocol
  • ISO/IEC 15118 -3 Physical and data link layer requirements

IEC 62752 In-cable control and protection devices (RCD)

Electric vehicle connectors

Phoenix Contact offers a complete range of vehicle connectors and infrastructure plugs from a single source: type 1, type 2 and GB/T standard. Whether it’s conventional charging on the AC power grid or fast DC charging, you’ll find the perfect solution in our product range which is also based on the requirements in accordance with IEC 62196.

  • AC charging cables for Type 1, Type 2, and GB/T standard
  • DC charging cables for CCS Type 1, CCS Type 2, and GB/T standard

AC Charging Connector

AC Charging Connector

DC Charging Connector

DC Charging Connector

Charging controllers

The EV Charge Controller Advanced charging controller can establish an intelligent connection to control systems via Ethernet and Modbus TCP. The relevant energy and performance data is recorded by the charging controller via a configurable RS-485 interface, Modbus RTU and based on the requirements in accordance with IEC 61851-1. We also supply software modules in accordance with IEC 61851 and OCPP to facilitate communication between vehicles, charging stations, and even back-end systems.

EV Charging Controllers

EV Charging Controllers

In addition to our charging systems, we also offer a complete product range for constructing a modern charging infrastructure – from the power supply to the tamper-proof operator interface. Our solution expertise is rounded off by professional consultation and software services.

Type of charging mode IEC 61851

The three different modes of electric vehicle conductive charging specified in IEC 61851

The three different modes of electric vehicle conductive charging specified in IEC 61851

Phoenix Contact has a complete range of products for designing the infrastructure of charging stations, such as Ev Connectors, Charging Controllers, Energy Meters, RCM, Surge Protection, Terminal Blocks, Power Supplies, DC-UPS, Ethernet, Switch, PLC, IPC etc.

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If you would like to find out more about Phoenix Contact’s E-Mobility, feel free to contact us!

More safety for charging stations

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With the new EV RCM residual current monitoring modules, Phoenix Contact fulfills the standard requirements according to IEC 61851-1 as regards DC residual current acquisition in charging equipment.

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According to current draft standards in charging infrastructure, in the future, either a Type B residual current or alternatively a Type A residual current with additional detection and shutdown equipment will be required in the case of DC residual currents > 6 mA. This should ensure that any occurring DC residual currents, e.g., due to insulation faults in the vehicle, do not have a negative impact on safety equipment in the infrastructure.

The modules detect AC and DC residual currents and the charging process is aborted before the residual current can affect the installation. The RCM modules are compatible with the EV Charge Control series of charging controllers from Phoenix Contact. This means that the residual current modules can be automatically reset and even carry out an automatic self-test. This lowers costs for service operations and increases the availability of the charging station. The module is available in a single- or two-channel design and can therefore be used to monitor residual currents in a domestic charging station or at commercial charging points.

Phoenix Contact E-Mobility GmbH certified according to ISO/TS 16949

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The E-Mobility center of expertise for components, systems, and solutions, which is part of the Phoenix Contact Group, thereby fulfills the high requirements of the automotive industry in terms of processes, quality, and organization.


Phoenix Contact E-Mobility develops and produces charging systems and charging controllers for AC and DC charging and is a complete provider of charging infrastructure components, for both static and mobile equipment. In order to comply with the specific requirements of the automotive industry, with regard to development and project work in particular, processes and organization within the company were coordinated and adjusted according to the needs of this guideline.

In addition to high standards, innovations, and quality, E-Mobility now boasts a certified management system and continues to excel as a reliable partner in the automotive industry thanks to its consistent approach to customers and service.